Document Type



Background: This study assessed health care trainees perceptions of their education regarding transgender health care issues and personal and professional comfort level with the provision of transgender health care. An online 20 question survey (2013) about trainee experience and education on transgender health care was administered to medical (MD), nurse practitioner (NP), and physician assistant (PA) students at a single institution.

Methods: The survey instrument consisted of seven demographic questions and 13 nondemographic questions about education in transgender health, hours of education received, and personal and professional comfort with transgender medical care. Nondemographic questions were written as evenpoint Likert scale questions with four rating options (very comfortable, somewhat comfortable, somewhat uncomfortable, and very uncomfortable).

Results: A total of 484 MD, NP, and PA students responded to the online survey out of 1,035 eligible students (47% response rate). Only 74 (15%) respondents had provided medical care to a transgender patient. Provision of medical care to a transgender patient was associated with increased hours of education on transgender health issues (P

Conclusions: MD, NP, and PA students are personally comfortable with transgender patients but the vast majority do not come into contact with this patient population during their preclinical or clinical years. Increased student contact with transgender patients is associated with increased educational hours on transgender health care issues and is needed to provide the fullest educational experience for trainees in this area.


The University of Toledo


Ward M. Canaday Center for Special Collections

Digital Publisher

Translation: The University of Toledo Journal of Medical Sciences