Rock and Mineral Exhibit, 2016-17

The University Libraries, in collaboration with Professor Mark Camp and the Department of Environmental Sciences, have created this exhibit showcasing a wide variety of rocks, minerals, and fossils from the University’s Museum of Mineralogy and Paleontology. The exhibit also contains samples from the personal collections of Mark Camp and Ruth Jacobs, along with Jeep artifacts loaned by Darryl Bauman.

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Agatized Coral
Oligocene. SiO2 - Mohs Hardness: 6 1/2 - 7. Agatized coral occurs when silica in the ocean water hardens, replacing the limy corals with a form of quartz known as chalcedony. This long process (20-30 million years) results in the formation of a "pseudomorph," meaning that one mineral has replaced another without having lost its original form. In 1979 agatized coral was designated Florida's official state stone.
Amethyst
SiO2 - Mohs Hardness: 7. In antiquity, as well as in the Middle Ages, people believed that the cosmos was reflected in gemstones. The amethyst is assigned to the planet Neptune. The esoteric movement revived the ancient belief and the gem industry made it another marketing tool to promote certain gems.
Amethyst
SiO2 - Mohs Hardness: 7. Amethyst name derives from the Greek "amethystos", which means "not drunken", as Amethyst in antiquity was thought to ward off drunkenness. The color of some Amethyst specimens from certain localities slowly fade upon prolonged exposure to light. When used as a gemstone, Amethyst is often heat treated to deepen the color, or to transform it into Citrine.
Amethyst
SiO2 - Mohs Hardness: 7. Fine amethysts are featured in the British Crown Jewels and they were also a favorite of Catherine the Great and Egyptian royalty. Amethyst also holds a high place in the ranks of the Christian church and was referred to as "the stone of bishops".
Aragonite
CaCO3 - Mohs Hardness: 3 1/2 - 4. Aragonite occurs as the hard skeletal material of certain fresh-water and marine invertebrate organisms, including pelecypods (e.g. Clams, oysters, mussels), gastropods (creatures such as snails, slugs, and whelks), and some corals. The accumulated debris from these skeletal remains can be thick and extensive, usually on shallow sea floors, and with time may transform into limestone.
Azurite - Malachite
Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2and Cu2CO3(OH)2 - Mohs Hardness: 3 - 4. Azurite and Malachite are basic carbonates of copper. The two stones are often found mixed together creating beautiful patterns. Azurite is believed to fortify memory and intellectual receptivity. It is believed to help ease rheumatism. Malachite is also believed to ease rheumatism. It is a symbol of creativity and is used to make one conscience of fears and desires.
Banded Iron Formation
A sedimentary rock consisting of layers of iron oxides, either magnetite or hematite, with alternating bands of shales and cherts. Banded iron beds are an important commercial source or iron ore, the primary ingredient in the production of steel. Large deposits are located in Minnesota and Western Australia.
Banded Iron Formation
Banded iron formations have greater than 15% sedimentary iron content. They are of economic interest as they host the world's largest iron ore deposits and many gold deposits.
Barite
BaSO4 - Mohs Hardness: 3 - 3 1/2. Barite is the primary ore of barium, which is used to make a wide variety of barium compounds. Uses include; weighing agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration, filler in paints and plastics, sound reduction in engine compartments, brake linings, and auto paint coatings to add smoothness and corrosion resistance. Major producers include China, India, Morocco, and the US. US mining occurs in Arkansas, Connecticut, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Nevada, and Missouri.
Barite
BaSO4 - Mohs Hardness: 3 - 3 1/2. Barite is well-known for its great range of colors and varied crystal forms and habits. It is an immensely popular mineral among collectors. Barite is easily identifiable by its heavy weight, since most similar minerals are much lighter.
Barite
BaSO4 - Mohs Hardness: 3 - 3 1/2. Barite is well-known for its great range of colors and varied crystal forms and habits. It is an immensely popular mineral among collectors. Barite is easily identifiable by its heavy weight, since most similar minerals are much lighter.
Beryl
Be3Al2SiO6 - Mohs Hardness: 7 1/2 - 8. The most important physical properties of beryl are those that determine its usefulness as a gem. Color and clarity are very important. Beryl occurs in a diversity of colors, with some of those colors being highly desirable. It also occurs in transparent crystals that have clarity and size that are sufficient for faceting. Many beryls have a color that can be improved by heating.
Blue Fluorite
CaF2 - Mohs Hardness: 4. Fluorite is commonly found as cubic crystals, but blue crystals are unusual. The blue color can be caused by trace amounts of yttrium substituting for calcium in the fluorite crystal structure.
Carrollite on Calcite
Cu(Co,Ni)2S4 - Mohs Hardness: 4 1/2 - 5 1/2. For years after it was first discovered, Carroll County in Maryland was the only place in the world that Carrollite was known to exist. Carrollite is an uncommon mineral that can be found in additional USA localities, Mexico, Chile, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Germany, Sweden, Namibia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Japan, North Korea, and Australia, among several others.
Celestine
SrSO4 - Mohs Hardness: 3 - 3 1/2. The best specimens of this mineral come from the U.S. The state of Ohio contains perhaps the greatest deposits. Especially of note is South Bass Island in Lake Erie, where giant pale blue crystals were obtained in the hamlet of Put-In-Bay. Also in Ohio are Lime City, Portage, and the Pugh Quarry, all in Wood Co.; and Clay Center, Ottawa Co., where the Celestine occurs with pale brown Calcite and Fluorite.
Celestine Geode
SrSO4 - Mohs Hardness: 3 - 3 1/2. Celestine is an attractive mineral consisting of stronitum sulfate that forms in well-shaped crystals with a distinctive blue color. While pure Celestine is colorless, various impurities give this mineral a wider range of colors, especially the unique blue color. Celestine geodes with sky-blue crystals are well-known and abundant from Madagascar. Celestine is the principal source of the element stronitum commonly used in fireworks and in various metal alloys.

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