Rock and Mineral Exhibit, 2016-17

The University Libraries, in collaboration with Professor Mark Camp and the Department of Environmental Sciences, have created this exhibit showcasing a wide variety of rocks, minerals, and fossils from the University’s Museum of Mineralogy and Paleontology. The exhibit also contains samples from the personal collections of Mark Camp and Ruth Jacobs, along with Jeep artifacts loaned by Darryl Bauman.

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Amethyst
SiO2 - Mohs Hardness: 7. Amethyst name derives from the Greek "amethystos", which means "not drunken", as Amethyst in antiquity was thought to ward off drunkenness. The color of some Amethyst specimens from certain localities slowly fade upon prolonged exposure to light. When used as a gemstone, Amethyst is often heat treated to deepen the color, or to transform it into Citrine.
Amethyst
SiO2 - Mohs Hardness: 7. Fine amethysts are featured in the British Crown Jewels and they were also a favorite of Catherine the Great and Egyptian royalty. Amethyst also holds a high place in the ranks of the Christian church and was referred to as "the stone of bishops".
Amethyst
SiO2 - Mohs Hardness: 7. In antiquity, as well as in the Middle Ages, people believed that the cosmos was reflected in gemstones. The amethyst is assigned to the planet Neptune. The esoteric movement revived the ancient belief and the gem industry made it another marketing tool to promote certain gems.
Banded Iron Formation
Banded iron formations have greater than 15% sedimentary iron content. They are of economic interest as they host the world's largest iron ore deposits and many gold deposits.
Banded Iron Formation
A sedimentary rock consisting of layers of iron oxides, either magnetite or hematite, with alternating bands of shales and cherts. Banded iron beds are an important commercial source or iron ore, the primary ingredient in the production of steel. Large deposits are located in Minnesota and Western Australia.
Blue Fluorite
CaF2 - Mohs Hardness: 4. Fluorite is commonly found as cubic crystals, but blue crystals are unusual. The blue color can be caused by trace amounts of yttrium substituting for calcium in the fluorite crystal structure.
Cobaltoan Calcite
(Ca,Co)CO3 - Mohs Hardness: 3. Cobaltoan Calcite is calcite composed of a large amount of cobalt which gives it a pinkish rose color. This crystal is thought to be beneficial for friendships, psychic abilities, and communication with the spirit world.
Coprolite
Eocene. Dinosaur droppings were crucial for ancient plant life. Just as modern-day farmers scatter manure around their crops (which replenishes the nitrogen compounds that make soil fertile), the millions of tons of dinosaur dung produced every single day during the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods helped keep the world's forests lush and green.
Dinosaur Rib Section
Jurassic. Morrison Formation. Morrison Formation is a series of sedimentary rocks deposited during the Jurassic Period in western North America, from Montana to New Mexico. The Morrison Formation is famous for its dinosaur fossils, which have been collected for more than a century, beginning with a find near the town of Morrison, Colorado, in 1877. Radiometric dating indicates that the Morrison Formation is between 148 million and 155 million years old.
Dioptase / Quartz
CuSiO,2(OH)2 - Mohs Hardness: 5. Dioptase is a brightly colored mineral, highly desired for its intense green color. It can form in very distinctive, well-developed crystals, but only a handful of well-known deposits have produced large crystals. Most localities of this mineral, including those in Arizona, only produce microcrystals. Dioptase crystals are generally fragile and can easily break or crumble, and therefore care must be exercised when handling specimens.
Fern
Pennsylvanian. During the Pennsylvanian Period, widespread swamps laid down the thick beds of dead plant material that today constitute most of the world's coal. Lasting some 33 million or so years, the Late Carboniferous or Pennsylvanian age was the high point of stem tetrapod evolution, especially during the Bashkirian and Moscovian epochs. During this time the first reptiles and synapsids evolved and quickly diversified.
Fluorite - Calcite
CaF2 and CaCO3 - Mohs Hardness: 4 and 3. Illinois, USA is perhaps best known for world-class fluorites from the Minerva Mine, Denton Mine, and others throughout Hardin County and beyond. Besides colorful fluorites, many other minerals like celestine, galena, sphalerite calcite, and witherite have also been discovered there.
Fluorite Octahedrons
CaF2 - Mohs Hardness: 4. Fluorite is considered to be one of most popular minerals in the world among gem and mineral collectors, second only to quartz. Fluorite was first described in 1530 and was originally referred to as 'fluorspar'. The mineral was strongly noted for its effectiveness as a flux for aluminum and steel processing. Today, the term 'fluorspar' is primarily used for the industrial and chemical form of fluorite,
Freshwater Fish
Eocene. Green River has been noted for its well-preserved fish since mid-way through the 19th century. The unusually excellent preservation of the Green River fish fossils is usually attributed to a combination of two factors: 1) a cold period during the Eocene that would have caused dead fish to sink faster due to a less inflated swim bladder; and 2) the great depth of the lakes and the consequent anoxic conditions that would have often prevented scavengers from disturbing the carcasses.
Jeep Grill
This grill was stamped out of mild steel, a steel containing low levels of carbon, making it softer than steels with a higher carbon content, and therefore easier to be stamped into a desired shape. A chromium alloy was then electroplated to the surface, a process known as chrome plating. This technique adds a very thin layer of chromium to the steel, giving it a decorative shine and adding corrosion resistance.
Jeep Hubcap
Stainless Steel. 1969 Kaiser Jeep Jeepster. This hubcap was stamped out of stainless steel, a corrosion resistant alloy composed of a mixture of iron, carbon, and chromium. Chromium is the main alloy giving the steel its corrosion resistance. Many stainless steels also contain nickel, molybdenum, and titanium. These different alloying elements have specific effects on the properties of the steel.
Jeep Valve Cover
Aluminum Alloy, 1968 M715 Kaiser Jeep Pickup Truck, 6 cylinder 231 ci Tornado I6. Aluminum Alloys for purposes such as this typically include aluminum, copper and magnesium to add strength, and silicon to reduce the melting temperature of the mix.
Limestone
Mohs Hardness: 3-4. Limestone is a sedimentary rock, most of which is composed of skeletal fragments of marine organisms. Most limestone is made into crushed stone and used as a construction material, including road base construction and as an aggregate in concrete. It is also a necessary ingredient in the process of purifying molten glass and steel.
Mohs Hardness Scale (Graphic)
Mohs Hardness Scale. Graphic by the Indiana Geological Survey. Copyright 2011, The Trustees of Indiana University, Indiana Geological Survey. This may be reproduced for educational purposes, courtesy of the Indiana Geological Survey
Petrified Wood
Jurassic. It forms when plant material is buried by sediment and protected from decay by oxygen and organisms. Then, groundwater rich in dissolved solids flows through the sediment replacing the original plant material with silica, calcite, pyrite or another inorganic material such as opal. The result is a fossil of the original woody material that often exhibits preserved details of the bark, wood and cellular structures.

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