Document Type



A thin film photovoltaic cell having a semiconductor layer of cadmium sulfide and a semiconductor layer of cadmium telluride is manufactured in a process in which the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride are deposited onto a conductive layer of a substrate by RF sputtering. A layer of cadmium sulfide is deposited on the conducting layer of the substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. After the cadmium sulfide is deposited, a layer of cadmium telluride is deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. The RF sputtering deposition of the two semiconductor layers increases the efficiency of the cell and is conducive to a large scale manufacturing process. The photovoltaic cell may include only two semiconductor layers forming a p-n junction. A third semiconductor layer, typically zinc telluride, may be added to the cell to form a p-i-n junction. The efficiency of the cell is further increased by treatment with cadmium chloride and annealing in dry air. The cadmium chloride is deposited using laser-driven physical vapor deposition. The cell is then annealed at approximately 400 degrees Celsius in air prior to deposition of the second contact. The second contact is deposited using vacuum evaporation of copper and gold.

Patent Country


Patent Number


Publication Date



The University of Toledo

Application Number


Filing Date

May 1993

Primary Class


Secondary Class

136/260; 136/264; 136/265; 204/192.25; 204/192.26; 438/94


These materials are free of copyright restrictions and are in the public domain within the United States only. The USPTO reserves the right to assert copyright protection internationally.


The University of Toledo


University of Toledo Libraries

Digital Publisher

Digital Initiatives